Starship - SpaceX is building a true spacecraft that will be able to travel to both the Moon and Mars.

Tipping Point - What would it take for the Starship to trigger a public-private partnership with NASA?

Falcon Heavy - We now have access to a heavy lift vehicle that can be used for lunar return.

Lander - Concept for a reusable lunar lander based upon the Centaur upper stage.

Gym - Full-scale mock-up of the above lunar lander.

XEUS - ULA's XEUS lunar lander concept.

Terrestrial Demonstrator - Masten could develop and fly a full-scale lunar demonstrator for only about $20 M and in 1.5-2 years.

Gateway - NASA is pursuing a mini-station in lunar orbit. Is it necessary or can we return to the Moon without it?


Resources - We know where the ice, organics, metals and other resources are on the Moon.

Cislunar One - Concept for linking solar drapes to telerobotic operation on the floor of a permanently-shadowed crater.

Solar Drapes - Minimal mass of supporting structure for maximum solar power generation.

Harvester - Concept for an all-in-one telerobot that harvests icy regolith, steams, and distills water for propellant.

Environment - The telerobots would need to first be developed in labs with conditions like what they'll find on the Moon.

UniHab - Concept for a large, flat-roofed inflatable habitat for a shielded, turnkey facility.

Centrifuge - A low-mass centrifuge composed of a carbon fiber truss and swiveling chambers.

Greenhouse - University of Arizona - Tucson has been working on a lunar greenhouse concept.

Algae - Algae for fish food could be grown using this drape system.


Crew - An historic, initial crew of eight (four couples) with a variety of skills, backgrounds, and talents.

History - The first humans beginning to move off Earth indefinitely would be hugely historic...if done right.

Extended Stay - By extending their stay, transport costs are reduced and the risk of crew rotations can be reduced.

First Woman - When the first woman steps foot on the Moon, it will be a historic moment.

Space Suit - Wouldn't it be cool to develop a costume looking like this space suit?

Dog - The most popular crew member of the Initial Team will be the dog!

TV Series - Imagine tuning into a TV show coming live from the Moon. What amazing thing will they do next?

Virtual Reality - When we return to the Moon, people on Earth could pay for the experience of practically being there during these historic events.

Inspiration - Hundreds of millions of young people will be watching as people begin to move off Earth.

Languages - If language was a primary selection criterium, the initial crew of eight would be able to speak to about 70% of the world's population.

Artificial Gravity - Proposed protocol for the development of an artificial gravity prescription in the least amount of time.

Radiation - There are solutions for the challenge of radiation in the different settings.

Hydrostatic - Concept for how an Earth-equivalent environment could be approximated using an indoor centrifuge.

Food - Hydroponic food will meet the nutritional needs of the crew.

Psychology - Small habitats could lead to cabin fever, affairs, and divorces. How can these be prevented?

Dance - In 1/6th gravity dance will be an entirely new thing.

Dust - Lunar dust is a real challenge. How could it be handled?

Revenue - There is a clear path for how each phase of lunar development can be funded.


Site List - A spreadsheet of newsworthy sites, habitats, and activities on the Moon.

Lunar Sites - A web page with the newsworthy sites organized.

Lunar Pits - Lunar lava pits and tubes.

Arch - Yes, there actually is one natural arch on the Moon.

Magnetic Patterns - Magnetic patters imprinted on the lunar surface.

Irregular Patches - Strange, possibly volcanic patterns on the surface of the Moon.

Tycho Crater - One of the most noteworthy craters on the Moon has a singular, large boulder right on top of its central peak.

Affordability - With an end-to-end commercial transport system to the lunar surface, between 66% and 100% of countries could afford a mission of lunar exploration.

Roads - Telerobots could create a network of basic roads for rovers, cargo, and crew.

Preservation - As various countries take their first steps on the Moon, how will all of the artifacts be preserved?


Starship - It seems likely that SpaceX's Starship will be the rocket used to develop and settle Mars.

Tipping Point - Support for Starship should happen when Starship achieves orbit and the Super Heavy is recovered.

Moon vs Mars - Given the relevant factors, it appears that Mars will be developed and settled shortly after the Moon is.

Initial Mars - Early missions to Mars will emphasize the development of local resources to reduce cargo missions.

Martian ISRU - Different approaches will be used for harvesting and processing resources on Mars compared to the Moon.

Mars Exploration - Like on the Moon there will be a large, profitable, and useful International Mars Exploration Phase.

Settlement - Martian settlement will be mostly like lunar settlement with retirees forming the bulk of settlers.

Earth Independence - Achieving Earth independence on Mars will be easier but not sooner than doing so on the Moon.

Countries on Mars - It seems likely that as the population of Mars grows, eventually people of different languages will want their own countries.

Mars Roads - One might even imagine where Martian roads would be built to connect major points of interests and capitol cities.

Paraterraforming - Paraterraforming will be a much, much more rapid approach to providing Earth-like environments.


Videos - Watch the series of YouTube videos on this topic.

What is AEI - Earth independence is calculated by measuring how much mass no longer needs to be shipped as the base produces things for itself.

Resources - It appears that all of the necessary resources needed for Earth independence is present on the Moon and likely Mars.

Periodic Table - Needs - The elemental needs for human survival.

Periodic Table - Sources - The lunar sources of the essential elements.

Metals - How can we get metals on the Moon and transform them into usable forms?

Machining - It is complex, but we have a good idea of the source of metals and how to melt, cast, and machine it into parts.

Chemistry - The source of organics is well known on both the Moon and Mars. Producing things like plastics is fairly straightforward.

Artificial Gravity - Will partial gravity be sufficient for generational reproduction. If not, hopefully artificial gravity will help.

Habitats - Obviously, to survive long term, the colony will have to produce its own habitats. How can this be done?.

Food - It's very complex but hydroponics seems to be up to the job to produce all of the food that self-sustaining colonists will need.

Nutrition - An Earth independent base would need to meet the nutritional and culinary needs of its crew. How?.

Power - Excellent laboratory work has been done demonstrating that solar cells can be produced from known lunar material.

Electronics - Shipping a "sufficient supply" of electronics would buy time to implement protocols to produce good enough electronics.

Genetics - Studies show that frozen embryos are viable for decades and perhaps longer.

Information - What information will the colonists need and how best to store and retrieve it?.

Escape & Quarantine - Surviving is one thing. But ultimately, humanity will have to spread yet further.

xRisks - Complete Earth independence will ensure that humanity survives self-replicating technology.

The MMAB - OK. How do advocates go from theorizing Earth independence to demonstrating it starting with an analogue base?


Responsibility - Is NASA responsible for space settlement or is this a private matter -- or both?

Location - Where should the first settlement be located?

How Soon? Settlement can start small and much sooner than most realize.

Master Plan - How will things logically develop until space settlement starts?

Population Growth - A large settlement can be established by increasing the number of launches and passengers per launch.

Retirement - Retirees make excellent settlers because of their savings and freedom from child rearing and occupational responsibilities.

Motivation - Given how wonderful Earth already is, what would motivate people to want to move off Earth?

Medical - How could the medical needs of a growing base / settlement be met?

Quality of Life - In order to attract settlers, the settlement needs to be attractive. How can this be done?

Countries - As the settlement grows, eventually people groups will start to emerge ultimately leading to political independence.


Legacy - An administration could have the historic distinction of starting when humanity started moving beyond Earth.

Leadership - By opening the Moon to all nations, the United States can greatly magnify its current leadership in space.

Private Workers - For historic reasons, the Initial Crew should be private company workers rather than NASA astronauts.

Lunar COTS - The Moon should be developed using a set of public-private programs.

International COTS - The United States should challenge other countries to fund their own companies to compete with ours.

Tipping Point - What would it take for the Starship to trigger a public-private partnership with NASA?

Early Mars - It should be the policy for us to do a Mars mission as soon as possible while developing the Moon.

Commercial Space - Commercial space is good provided that it doesn't tie up funding for the most important goals.

Commercial LEO - There is a danger in NASA funding the unsuccessful commercial development of Low Earth Orbit.

Funding - Each phase of lunar development and settlement have logical sources of funding.

Retirement - The business case for settlement starts with retirees leading the way.

Path to Settlement - A clear path exists from telerobotics & cargo all the way to large-scale, private settlement.


5 Phases - Each phase of lunar development and settlement have logical sources of funding.

Lunar COTS - The Moon should be developed using a set of public-private programs.

International COTS - The United States should challenge other countries to fund their own companies to compete with ours.

Reducing Expenses - A budget can be brought closer to profitability if shipping costs are reduced by using local resources.

More Revenue - There are several surprising sources of modest funding once crew arrives on the Moon.

International Exploration - NASA's budget can be quickly freed up as other countries purchase commercial seats for lunar exploration.

SpaceX Income - SpaceX will generate the revenue it needs via a partnership with NASA, its Starlink constellation, & selling tickets.

Earth Independence - At some point, philanthropists will have to fund Earth independent technologies that exceed the needs of a base.

Settlement - Each phase of lunar development and settlement have logical sources of funding.

Commercial LEO - There's a fair amount of evidence that suggests that "commercializing" LEO will prove to be a budgetary drain.

Moon-Mars Analogue Base - Funding for the development of a MMAB will primarily be through philanthropy & Kickstarter campaigns.


Comparisons - The MMAB will include a lunar perspective and will be more development and settlement-oriented.

Location - Currently Tucson, AZ is identified as the best site for the MMAB.

Master Plan - The MMAB will development from the first UniHab all the way to a full, analogue settlement.

UniHab - The UniHab will be a large, inflatable, flat-roofed habitat made out of vinyl.

Specialty - Follow-on habitats will be "specialty habs" including habs for food, utilities, residence, recreation, etc.

Collaboration - There are a number of potential local and distant partners for the analogue base.

PR - An analogue base could provide an opportunity for many newsworthy events.

Time-lapse - A time lapse video of the UniHab being inflated would make for an interesting visual.

Funding - Funding for the development of a MMAB will primarily be through philanthropy & Kickstarter campaigns.

Independence - A side project of the MMAB would be to see how far we can get with supplying needs using local resources.


Working Groups - Space Development Network teams working to advance a specific field.

Agriculture (AgWG) - Developing a Plan to provide all the nutritional needs of an Initial Crew.


Asteroid Defense - How big a threat to Earth are asteroids really?

Asteroid Mining - Optical mining of asteroids for water for propellant seems like the place to start.

BioPreserve - Could Earth's biosphere be backed up in the form of a frozen preserve?.

Mars - With the Starship, lessons learned on the Moon would be immediately applied to Mars.

Orbital Debris - Fortunately, there are some easy ways of preventing orbital debris.

Orbital Settlements - In equatorial LEO, radiation levels are lower and so a good place for settlement.

Paraterraforming - Mars can be most quickly transformed using an approach of extending very large greenhouses.

Property Rights - What is the difference between real and personal property rights?

Phobos-Deimos - Simultaneous to lunar development, in-space steps could be taken to Mars.

Robots vs Humans - What's the proper role for humans and robots in exploration, development, & settlement?

Sustainability - What are the four flavors that sustainability comes in?

Tourism - Tourism will likely play an important role in the development of commercial space..


Parts - A categorized list of parts of different equipment need for achieve full self-sufficiency.

Components - An attempt to develop a comprehensive list of all of the components needed to create an Earth independent habitat.

Demos - A list of demos illustrating the Earth independence processes.

FTEs - An estimate of how many full time equivalents it would take to be Earth independent.

Objects - A list of objects to be constructed and the source of their materials.

Order - Earth independence processes in order that we might expect for them to develop.

Training - An attempt to estimate how many man-hours it would take to train the next generation to continue Earth independence.

Species - A list of the number of species that could be preserved.

Layers - The five layers of an inflatable habitat and their masses per square meter.

Rooms - A list of the rooms in a UniHab and what square foot they would take up.

Kitchen - A list of items needed within the kitchen.

Food - A list of foods and how they would be processed.

Processes - A list of what processes would be needed in order to store and prepare agricultural produce.